【写作】写了那么多年作文,你真的会“脑暴”构思吗?

2019/08/30 14:44:32
       作为征战考/赛场多年的大学生,写了那么多年作文,还记得被各种写作题目支配的恐惧吗?你看到作文题目的第一反应是什么?
 
       大脑一片空白派:
       OMG, I know nothing about the topic. What can I do?
       思绪万千派:
       I have a lot of ideas on my mind, but I don't know where I can start?
 
       不论是哪一派,相信大家拿到题目后都会进入“脑暴”状态,开始构思,试图迈出写作成功的第一步!
 
       那么,灵魂拷问来了!
       你知道如何进行“脑暴”吗?
       你掌握了几种“脑暴”构思的技巧?
 
       今天就为大家分享两种超实用“脑暴”构思技巧!
       适用范围:“外研社·国才杯”全国英语写作大赛及各种比赛、考试。
       功效:专治各种下笔无头绪、不知所措等疑难杂症。
 
“脑暴”技巧一:Making a cube 正方体分解法
从六个不同的方面探讨话题
 
       此法适合手握话题却不知所措的同学,通过借用正方体来建立模型进行思索。
       So,考验大家空间想象力的时刻来啦~
       将需要讨论的话题想象成一个正方体,分别从六个不同的角度来分析这个话题:
       第一面:Describe the topic
       先试着描述这个话题,想清楚话题讲的到底是什么内容。
       第二面:Compare the topics
       从横向进行拓展,对比分析,将话题和其他比较熟悉的相关话题进行比较,发现相异点和相同点。
       第三面:Associate the topic
       从横向进行拓展,发挥联想,全面考虑话题与相关话题的联系。
       第四面:Analyze the topic
       从纵向进行拓展,深入分析并讨论该话题。
       第五面:Apply the topic
       联系应用,思考这个话题如何运用到实际情景中。
       第六面:Argue for or against the topic
       从自身的立场出发,确定支持/不支持这个话题。
 
       “外研社·国才杯”写作真题解析
       Optimism provides a multitude of benefits across many facets of life. Researchers have linked looking on the bright side to everything from improved pain tolerance to increased longevity. There's no denying the incredible power an optimistic outlook can have on our health, relationships, and performance. But like much in life, it is possible to have too much of a good thing. There are some cases when an overly optimistic outlook can do more harm than good.
       Suppose there is an online discussion forum on the topic "Can being positive backfire?" Write a post to the forum, clearly stating your opinion and supporting your ideas with specific reasons and examples. You should write about 800 words.
 
       如何应用正方体分解法?
       首先,阅读题目,提炼关键词
       通过阅读,可以看到题目问题是“Can being positive backfire?”,题中的关键字为optimism、benefits、improved pain tolerance、increased longevity、health、relationships、performance、an overly optimistic outlook、harm、specific reasons、examples。
 
       其次,通过正方体对话题进行扩展
       下面是具体写作时的思考步骤:
       第一步:Describe optimism,即a positive attitude towards life, study, work, etc.
       第二步:Compare optimism with pessimism/egocentrism。
       Optimism是positive attitude, pessimism即为negative attitude, egocentrism为thinking oneself as more important than others,将乐观与悲观,乐观与自大进行比较。
       第三步:Associate optimism with health/relationship/performance。可思考optimism与健康、人际关系、日常表现有什么关系。
       第四步:Analyze optimism。What is an overly optimistic outlook?分析什么叫过度乐观。
       第五步:Apply the topic,应用这个话题。How can too much optimism backfire? What are specific examples? 在这一步需考虑:什么是过度乐观,过度乐观会带来什么影响,是否有具体的例子可佐证。
       第六步,Argue for or against the topic,讨论是否同意过度乐观会带来不良影响。在这一步,可提出自己的观点,例如:I think being too optimistic can backfire as it is important to anticipate unfavorable outcomes。当然也可反对,提出过度乐观不会带来太大的影响。
 
 
“脑暴”技巧二:Clustering 聚类法
把不同的idea联系起来
 
       此法用于拯救看到话题后无从下笔的小伙伴们。
       脑中纵有千头万绪,但理不清理还乱的滋味实在不好受,怎样才能理出一条脉络清楚的写作思路呢?
       第一步:动笔写下topic,如果是一段文字描述性的题目则需找出里面的关键词,条件允许的情况下,最好用笔标注,更加醒目。
       第二步:看到这个topic或者关键词后,短时间内在头脑中迸发出的词汇和概念都记在纸上。
       第三步:筛选彼此有联系的词语或概念,圈出这些词汇,做下一步分析。
 
       分析后会发现,看似杂乱无章的灵感迸发其实是有内在联系和归类的,将这些彼此相连的话题串到一起,思路便应运而生了。
 
       “外研社·国才杯”写作真题解析
Has man a future?
       Liang Shuming, a Chinese philosopher who spent 70 years of his life seeking an answer to this question, held the belief that the world would get better every day. However, as the fast development of modern society has brought unprecedented challenges to mankind, this lingering question continues to provoke deep thought, reflection, doubt or even fear. For example, Igor Morski, a Polish graphic designer, has created a series of pictures depicting some of the lurking problems in today’s world that will endanger rather than improve people's lives. Some scholars even warn that if severe threats like nuclear weapons and climate change remain unchecked, "the doomsday clock is on the verge of striking."
       What is your answer to this question? Write an essay with YOUR OWN TITLE, clearly stating your opinion and supporting your ideas with reasons and examples. You should write about 800 words.
 
       如何应用聚类法?
       首先,通读全文,画出关键词。此处选段题目为“Has man a future?”,关键词有unprecedented challenges、the lurking problems、endanger、improve people's lives、severe threats、nuclear weapons、climate change、the doomsday、YOUR OWN TITLE。
 
       画下关键词,脑中陆续蹦出各种idea,下面就可进入写作构思:
       首先,画一个圆圈,将写作话题写在圈圈上,将所有想到的话题关键词写在圈中。
       1

 

       这些关键词可以来自作文题目,也可是自己联想到的,如从emission想到 Kyoto Protocol,dangerous,worldwide等。
 
       其次,筛选彼此有联系的词语或概念,进行连线,开始分析。
       2
       如上图中的global warming会造成climate change,而造成global warming的部分原因是growing population。把相关的内容联系起来,在写作时就能清楚地知道哪些内容属于同一topic,可联系起来进行深入分析。
 
 
这么独特实用的技能你get到了吗?
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