【阅读】测一测你的英语阅读短板

2018/09/04 19:36:31
       提起备战“外研社杯”全国英语阅读大赛,大家总说要提高阅读技能,攻克阅读短板。那么问题来了:
       大赛考查的阅读技能都有哪些?
       怎么找到自己的阅读短板并攻克它?
 
       下面,就和大家一起通过“外研社杯”阅读大赛往年真题来解锁五大阅读微技能,自测英语阅读水平,发现英语阅读短板,让备赛有的放矢、技能逐步提升!
 
一、主旨大意和中心思想
       目标能力描述:能准确、透彻地理解不同体裁和话题的语言材料,并把握其主旨和要义;对主题具体或抽象的复杂文章,能概括并归纳其主要内容。
 
       自测题目
       Directions: Read the text, and answer the question according to the text.
 
       “Nothing in education is so astonishing as the amount of ignorance it accumulates in the form of inert facts.”
 
       Which of the following is closest to the gist of the remark?
       A. Children at school learn by rote to pass examinations; yet what they learn cannot be contextualized.
       B. When you teach facts properly, with imagination and association, understanding becomes a part of it.
       C. Learn something every second, every minute, every hour, every day, every month… but also remember it.
       D. Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading.
 
       Key: A
       【题目解析】本题为主旨推断题。考察选手对文章大意的理解能力,难点为句义的理解。这段话出自亨利·亚当斯的自传体作品《亨利·亚当斯的教育》一书,大概意思是“在教育中,没有什么比以惯性事实的形式积累起来的无知更令人惊讶的了。”作者这句话意在批判“学而不思”的现象,强调在教育中进行思辨的重要性。选项A大意为学生只知死记硬背去通过考试,却不能深入理解所学知识,与原句主旨相吻合,为正确选项。B强调teaching facts的方法,C强调要时刻学习并且记住所学,D强调教育培养了一大批人,他们会读书,但却不能区分什么书值得读,题中未提及,因此B、C、D均不符合题意。
 
二、特定细节与关键信息
 
       目标能力描述:能详细读懂社会、工作或学术生活中可能遇到的众多复杂文章;对于一般专业性文章,可以理解主要事实和有关细节,包括生词、习惯表达、俚语等;对专业主题的新闻、文章和报道,能快速找出所需的关联信息;对相关专业领域的图表,能理解数据的含义及其关联信息。
 
       自测题目
       Directions: The bar chart shows women’s representation in senior business management across all regions in 2015. Answer the question according to the information in the chart.
 
       Women in senior business management across all regions, 2015

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       Source: Human Development Report 2015, Work for Human Development, the United Nations
 
       Which of the following is a CORRECT description of what the chart indicates? 
       A. Across regions senior positions held by women is approximately in proportion to the businesses with no women in senior management positions, neither of them reaching 50%.
       B. The chart presents the conflict between the level of female representation in senior positions and businesses in general in the two regions: the Developed Asia and Pacific and Latin America.
       C. Both senior positions held by women and the number of businesses with no women in senior management positions point to the highest level of female representation in Eastern Europe.
       D. It can be inferred from the chart that there are more businesses in France or Germany than in the USA or Canada who do not hire women for senior management positions.
 
        Key: C
       【题目解析】本题为图表题,考察选手对图表信息综合理解能力。该图表为柱状图。选项A中,一个关键的词语表达“in proportion to”,与……成比例。即黄色柱与蓝色柱的比例在across region中大致相当。第三对黄色柱与蓝色柱与其他的明显不一致:蓝色柱远高于黄色柱。故排除A选项。选项B中,题中所谈冲突的两个方面是:women in senior positions and in businesses in general。图中较高黄色柱实际表示的是:businesses with no women,因此with women的部分相反是低的。这样的话,在高级岗位以及在企业中高级岗位的妇女比例都是低的。故B错误。选项C中说明该地区妇女在高级岗位和在企业高级岗位的比例都最高。而通过图表可看出该地区的蓝色柱明显高于黄色柱,黄色柱实际表示的是没有妇女的企业高管比例,这个黄色柱越低,说明妇女比例越高。因此C正确。选项D说明不雇佣女性高管的企业数量在欧洲比在美国和加拿大多。根据此表推断不出该信息,因此D错误。
 
三、意图推测与观点判断
 
       目标能力描述:能分析复杂文章的目的、观点和立场,判断文章的褒贬色彩。对于有一定难度的历史传记和文学作品、一般英美报刊杂志上的社论和书评,能通过文章的选词、例子、修辞手法等细节信息,分析、判断、评价作者态度,理解深层含义,并能比较其中的思想观点。
 
       自测题目
       Directions: Read the text, and answer the question according to the text.
 
       Redwood trees are rare. They are found only on the coastal slopes of Northern California and Oregon, and in China. Redwoods were thought to be extinct in China, but they were rediscovered by a Chinese forester in 1948. These trees can grow hundreds of feet high and live to be thousands of years old. They are endangered due to logging, pollution, and global warming, which is reducing the amount of fog on the coast.
 
       Which of the following can be inferred from the text?
       A. The rediscovery of the redwoods in China saved the rare tree from extinction.
       B. Redwood trees will continue to grow taller throughout their whole lives.
       C. Redwoods can only grow in places that usually have a lot of fog.
       D. Using non-recyclable products will kill redwood trees.
 
       Key: C
       【题目解析】本题为观点判断题,考察选手在对原文的理解上对作者意图的推测能力。由选段末尾可知因全球变暖,海岸雾气减少使得红杉濒临灭绝,故选C。A与B不符原文,D项文中未提及。
 
四、背景知识与逻辑推理
 
       目标能力描述:能通过广泛阅读原版读物,积累丰富的文学常识及英语语言知识。逻辑推理能力强,善于把握文字逻辑,能通过信息的呈现顺序评判文章的逻辑性,并总结和归纳逻辑关系。
 
       自测题目
       Directions: Read the following quotes. Match the quotes with the people. Please note there are three extra options you do not need.
 
       _____1. Death is not extinguishing the light; it is only putting out the lamp because the dawn has come.
       _____2. Brevity is the best recommendation of speech, whether in a senator or an orator.
 
       A. Albert Einstein
       B. Cicero
       C. Sun Tzu
       D. Aristotle
       E. Rabindranath Tagore
 
        Keys:1.E; 2.B
       【题目解析】本题为匹配题,考察选手对名人名言的掌握情况。最直接的解题思路是,领会句义,根据以往的知识积累直接选出正确选项,另外也可根据对名人以往的经历及所长,结合名言中的关键词来进行推测判断。5位名人分别是:A爱因斯坦,B西塞罗,C孙子,D亚里士多德,E泰戈尔。
爱因斯坦,德国犹太裔理论物理学家、思想家和哲学家,创立了相对论,注重创造力和想象力。西塞罗是古罗马著名政治家和雄辩家,曾说过brevity is a great charm of eloquence,可知序号2是其名言。孙子,中国春秋时期军事家、政治家。亚里士多德,古希腊著名哲学家。泰戈尔,印度诗人,哲学家,他的诗中含有深刻的宗教和哲学的见解,序号1是其名言。
 
五、语篇特征与语篇逻辑
 
       目标能力描述:能理解不同体裁和话题的语言材料,辨析原文体裁种类和语言风格,领悟其内涵和话语特征;对于有一定难度的历史传记和文学作品、一般英美报刊杂志上的社论和书评,能理解、判断、分析其语篇结构,并能边读边根据已读内容预测下文。
 
       自测题目
       Directions: Read the text, and answer the question according to the text.
 
       The light has gone out, I said, and yet I was wrong. For the light that shone in this country was no ordinary light. The light that has illumined this country for these many years will illumine this country for many more years...
 
       Where is the piece of text most probably taken from?
       A. A eulogy for someone.
       B. An after-dinner speech.
       C. A formal official report.
       D. A parliamentary debate.
 
        Key: A
       【题目解析】本题为语篇分析题,考察选手对修辞手法的辨别能力。本段看似在写“light”,实则是把人比作了光。选段的第一句“the light has gone out”是在暗指这个人的去世,因此,选项A对某人的悼词符合题意。B为餐后演说(西方的餐后演说主要目的是娱乐),C为正式的官方报告,D为议会辩论,均不符合题意。
 
五大微技能解锁完毕,同学们答对了几道题呀?
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