【阅读】2020“外研社·国才杯”阅读决赛主观题专家评析

2021/01/10 19:09:09
       2020“外研社·国才杯”全国英语阅读大赛已落下帷幕,本次决赛中选手表现如何、面对令选手“头痛”的Read and Create主观题又该如何理解作答?
 
       小U力邀阅读大赛评委会主席、北京外国语大学王文斌教授评析Read and Create赛题,点评选手表现,带你走进阅读大赛,领悟比赛考查要点。
 
关于阅读和比赛
       王文斌教授指出,阅读可以为我们提供更多个人成长和发展的机会。它可以丰富知识,涵养智慧,培养品格。它可以建立人与人、国与国、文化与文化、过去与现在、现在与将来之间的联系。
 
       “外研社·国才杯”全国英语阅读大赛自启动以来,选手的英语水平有明显进步,主要表现在阅读理解、信息整合、判断分析、逻辑思维、观点讨论等方面能力均有显著提高。除此之外,学生的国际视野逐年拓宽,思维愈发锐利,知识储备愈发丰富。
 
主观题评析
       2020阅读决赛的最后一个模块Read and Create,以主观题的形式,要求选手阅读文本,写一篇议论文体的文章。在写作时选手需要辨析文中观点,并在文本理解的基础上阐发自己的观点。王教授就这一模块指出,议论文写作可以展现选手的批判性思考,这种能力有益于一生。无论选手们将来作为教师、记者、专家学者,抑或作为政府官员,其职业发展都将受益于此。强有力的议论文写作会提供有力的论点、充分的证据和事实,达到说服读者接受作者观点的目的。
 
2020“外研社·国才杯”全国英语阅读大赛Read and Create模块题目
 
Part IV Read and Create
In Part IV, you will read three texts and then write a short essay according to them. You should write with clarity and logic. (Time allowed: 40 minutes)
 
Question 41 (Suggested completion time: 40 minutes)
Directions: Gewu-zhizhi (格物致知) is an important term in the Chinese philosophy, often interpreted in literature as “to study or investigate things and acquire or extend knowledge” (Key Concepts in Chinese Thought and Culture II). Read the following three excerpts about gewu-zhizhi. Write a short essay according to them.
 
Excerpt A
What the Great Learning teaches, is to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence. ... The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own states. Wishing to order well their states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.
 
Excerpt B
For Zhu Xi, the purpose of the “investigation of things” is to extend our knowledge of the external Li (理). When it simply speaks of the “investigation of things,” it means that we should seek for “what is above shapes” through “what is within shapes.” We investigate the abstract through the concrete. What we as a result come to see lies both within the eternal world and within our own nature. The more we know Li, the more nature, ordinarily concealed by our physical endowment, becomes visible to us. This is why the student must, for all the separate things in the world, by means of the Li, which he already understands, proceed further to gain exhaustive knowledge of those (with which he is not yet familiar), thus striving to extend his knowledge to the farthest point. When one has exerted oneself for a long time, finally one morning a complete understanding will open before one. Thereupon there will be a thorough comprehension of all the multitude of things, external or internal, fine or coarse, and every exercise of the mind will be marked by complete enlightenment.
 
Excerpt C
According to Wang Yangming, ge means to rectify and wu means affairs. Gewu, therefore, does not mean “investigation of things,” but “rectification of affairs.” The intuitive knowledge, he maintains, must be extended through our daily experience in dealing with ordinary affairs. … The wu may be right or wrong, but as soon as this can be determined, our intuitive knowledge will immediately know it. When our intuitive knowledge knows a thing to be right, we must sincerely do it, and when our intuitive knowledge knows it to be wrong, we must sincerely stop doing it. In this manner we rectify our affairs and at the same time extend our intuitive knowledge. There is no other means of extending our intuitive knowledge except through the rectification of our affairs. That is why the Great Learning says: “The extension of knowledge consists in the rectification of affairs.” Therefore, the cultivation of the self is the same as extension of the intuitive knowledge. In extending our intuitive knowledge, we must love people, regulate our family, contribute our best to creating order in our state and bring peace to the world.
 
41. Write a short essay of about 250 words based on your understanding of the excerpts. Remember to write in your OWN words. Your essay should respond to the following questions:
(1) What are the differences and similarities between Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming regarding their ideas about gewu-zhizhi?
(2) What is your understanding of gewu-zhizhi?
 
 
       今年Read and Create共有三个选篇,探讨的主题是“格物致知”,是一个较有难度的哲学话题。王教授对赛题进行了深入细致的解读:
       Excerpt A讲述“格物致知”来源于《大学》,由八条目展开,八条目就是格物、致知、诚意、正心、修身、齐家、治国、平天下。格物致知是治国平天下的起点,而格物是致知的前提。
       Excerpt B讲述朱熹对“格物致知”的阐释。他认为,“物”是指物质世界中的具体事物。“格物”就是研究宇宙间一切具体的、外在的事物。“知”是指真切了解事物中抽象的原则或者真理,而“致知”就是从事物外在的理(external Li)探寻到内在的理(internal Li),从具体的理透视抽象的理。
       Excerpt C则表达了王阳明对“格物致知”不同的解读。他认为“物”不是具体的一个物,而是日常生活中的“事”,因此会有对错之分。“格物”就是如何去修正自己的心,如何去处理好自己的事,而让这个事得其正(rectify our affairs to keep things on the right track)。他认为“知”指“良知”,与“善”相联系,“致知”就是找到自己的良知,达到自我道德的修养,规范自我的行为。
 
       解读完文本中朱熹与王阳明对“格物致知”的观点后,王教授点评道,理解“格物致知”不是一件简单的事,甚至对于中国人来说也颇具难度。如果想要更好地解读“格物致知”,我们应该知道万事万物皆有理,从事物的表面结构探寻到抽象的、内在的理,在此的“纹”与“理”同义,即“纹理”。同时,“道”即是“理”,“理”即是“道”。只要能走上“正道”,就能到达预期的目的地,也就能达致“理”。“道”和“理”在中国人的观念里是非常重要的用词,譬如:“天文”“地理”“原理”“理顺”“道路”“正道”“世道”“道谛”“友道”。中国古代哲学思想提出人们应该“由表及里”“由浅入深”“循序渐进”“由此及彼”,就是指应该由外到内,由表至里,由浅入深来掌握事物的规律,也就是“真理”或“道”。
 
       接着,王教授继续深入阐述朱熹与王阳明对“格物致知”的思想异同。朱熹从事物的本体角度探讨“格物致知”,认为“理”是宇宙万物的本质。“格物”是“致知”的前提,即探究万事万物的本末,获得更广泛、更深入的知识,追求儒家的大千世界所共同遵循的“理”。王阳明从社会伦理的角度阐释“格物致知”,强调社会行为和道德规范,在日常事务中格正我们的行为,延伸我们的直觉知识(intuitive knowledge)。如果我们不遵循事物的真实结构或本质,就违背了自然规律,就会不可避免地犯错误。只有当我们善于观察事物的真实结构或本质时,我们才能分清孰是孰非。若知道自己做错了事,我们就应该纠正自己的行为。虽然朱熹与王阳明对“格物致知”的理解有很大差异,但是也有相通之处。比如,他们都是遵循了《大学》的教诲,“格物致知”的过程其实就是“知”与“行”的过程,“知”是“行”的基础。他们的“格物致知”说从本质上来讲是一致的,都是要在事事物物上去体悟天理,都是通过对天理的洞彻感悟进而内化为自身真实的生命内容,都是要达到一种意识上、行为上的纯善无恶,也就是达到《大学》中“止于至善”的境界。
 
       综上,王教授提出,学生写这篇文章时,应深刻理解两位哲学大家的思想异同,在研读、比较的基础上阐发自己独到的观点。
 
 
Weak points
       王教授还指出选手在主观题作答中的一些欠缺之处,以供选手勉之,期待大家将来取得更大的进步。
 
       1. English competency is underdeveloped. 用比较大的词汇表达极为简单的事情。
       2. Cohesion and coherence are not so well achieved. 衔接和连贯的效果并不十分理想。
       3. Collocations of English words are not paid enough attention to. 英语词汇的搭配尚未引起足够的重视。
       4. Grammatical mistakes and spelling errors frequently show up. 语法和拼写错误时常出现。
       5. Textual constructions are not so well organized. 篇章结构不够有条理。
       6. Ideas are not so effectively put across. 思想观点尚未得到有效表达。
       7. Clarity is not fully obtained. 阐释不够清楚到位。
       8. Good understanding of the text is missing. 对文本的理解尚有欠缺。
 
       看完王教授专业细致的评析,你对阅读主观题是不是有了更深刻的理解?
 
       2020阅读比赛虽已结束,但阅读之旅仍在继续。希望各位U粉儿力学笃行,不断前进,成为自我人生的“冠军”。